Abstracts to Published Papers

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Here are some abstracts from some of my published papers:

 

 Aboriginal Models of Mind and Mental Health

Tobacco and gifts were offered to a group of North American aboriginal elders in request to discuss aboriginal views of mind, identity, and mental health.  After these discussions, the author wrote the ideas from memory and presented them back to all the elders.  Discussions continued until consensus was reached among everyone about the key concepts, which included the idea that mind is a story that exists within relationships which may be with other people, elements of nature, spirits, Creator, and others.  Identity is described as the story we tell ourselves to make sense of all the stories that have ever been told about us.  Mental health is described in terms of balance within relationships, of maintaining harmony and balance within relationship.   Suffering occurs when harmony and balance are disrupted.  Crucial to the elders was the concept that there are no bad or defective people, only bad stories that people have heard about themselves and come to believe.  Examples are provided in which elders encourage those coming to them for healing to cast away the stories that tell them they are bad people or evil or that something is wrong with them and to listen to the traditional stories and to testimonies from others who have overcome adversity in order to be inspired to overcome their own situations and to change the story of their life.  The presenter draws parallels between these aboriginal views and the developing narrative paradigm within Western academic traditions, especially the writing of Bakhtin and Volosinov.

 

Integrating Mental Health Care with Diabetes Care for an Aboriginal Population

 A new format for combining diabetes and mental health care was implemented for a primarily aboriginal population.  A diabetes afternoon was started at an urban community center used primarily by aboriginal peoples.  Anyone with diabetes or concerned about diabetes was welcome, along with family members.  The gathering began with a traditional aboriginal meal, served to all attendees.  After the meal, discussion occurred about the foods used and how they were cooked and where to obtain them.  Then, a community meeting occurred in which people discussed their diabetes, challenges, life situations, needs, and resources.  The emphasis was on shared solution formation and sharing and pooling of resources.  At the end of that hour, community health nurses and a family doctor took people for individual medical visits when needed.  The remainder of the people participated in a session organized around stress-reduction, stress-mastery, and lifestyle management.  Following the formal program, a talking circle or a ceremony led by a community elder or a storytelling session was held.  Measurements were made of diabetes (glycohemoglobin), weight (Body Mass Index), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and overall Quality of Life (SF-36).  Comparisons were made for each participant from their historical data prior to the inception of the project.  Statistically significant improvements occurred in all these outcome measures when patients were used as their own historical controls.  While this is not a definitive, randomized controlled trial, it does suggest efficacy and points to the readiness of this concept to be subjected to an RCT.

 

Outcomes of Native American Healing Experiences:

Objective:  1) In these days of increasing popularity of complementary and alternative medicine, the American public needs to be reminded that every category of alternative therapy was practiced in North America by this continent’s first peoples as part of their healing systems.  Native American medicine provides an unbroken thread of therapies that are natural to this continent.  2)  To bring to attention the relative absence of traditional Native American medicine from current alternative therapies conferences, in comparison, for example, with traditional Chinese medicine or even traditional Tibetan medicine.  3)  To reinforce our awareness of the strength, value, and beauty of North America’s original healing traditions.  4) To describe how the author integrates

Methods:  Treatment programs which include Native American spirituality and treatment have been designed for a variety of medical and psychological conditions, including asthma, severe back pain, cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes, depression and bipolar disorder, hypertension, infertility, non-malignant gynecological, severe obsessive-compulsive disorder, and pregnancy-related complications.  Treatment occured in a residential setting for 1-2 weeks.

Results:    Of 105 patients, two patients died, two patients reported feeling worse after treatment, 8 patients reported no change, 45 patients were better, and 55 patients reported being "cured."

Discussion:  Native American spirituality was an integral aspect of the treatment and was helpful with Native Americans and members of other ethnic groups.  Many of those patients found exposure to the Native American philosophy and religion sufficiently inspirational that they returned to the religion of their childhood in a renewed and refreshed manner.  Others who were alienated from their childhood religion continued to use and study Native American spirituality.  "Cures" and improvements were long-lasting.  These approaches can be used for improving the health of Native Americans and also as a means for Native Americans to uniquely contribute to improving the health of other Americans.

 

Integrating Mental Health Care with Diabetes Care for an Aboriginal Population

A new format for combining diabetes care and mental health care was implemented for a primarily aboriginal population.  A diabetes drop-in afternoon was implemented at an urban community center used primarily by aboriginal peoples.  Anyone with diabetes or concerned about diabetes was welcome to come along with family members.  The gathering began with a traditional aboriginal meal, served to all attendees.  After the meal, discussion occurred about the foods used and how they were cooked and where to obtain them.  Then, a community meeting occurred in which people discussed their diabetes, challenges, life situations, needs, and resources.  This lasted usually one hour.  At the end of that hour, community health nurses and a family doctor took people for individual medical visits when that was needed.  The remainder of the people participated in a session organized around stress-reduction, stress-mastery, and lifestyle management.  A 20 session format was followed.  When it ended, it began again.  Following the formal program, a talking circle or a ceremony led by a community elder or a storytelling session was held.  To assess the potential utility of this pilot project, measurements were made of diabetes (glycohemoglobin), weight (Body Mass Index), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and overall Quality of Life (SF-36).  Comparisons were made for each participant from their historical data prior to the intervention of the project.  Statistically significant reductions occurred in all these outcome measures when patients were used as their own historical controls.  While this is not a definitive, randomized controlled trial, it does suggest efficacy and points to the readiness of this concept to be subjected to an RCT.

 

Title of Course:  Integrating Mental Health Care with Diabetes Care for an Aboriginal Population

 

Abstract:   A new format for combining diabetes and mental health care was implemented for a primarily aboriginal population.  A diabetes afternoon was started at an urban community center used primarily by aboriginal peoples.  Anyone with diabetes or concerned about diabetes was welcome, along with family members.  The gathering began with a traditional aboriginal meal, served to all attendees.  After the meal, discussion occurred about the foods used and how they were cooked and where to obtain them.  Then, a community meeting occurred in which people discussed their diabetes, challenges, life situations, needs, and resources.  The emphasis was on shared solution formation and sharing and pooling of resources.  At the end of that hour, community health nurses and a family doctor took people for individual medical visits when needed.  The remainder of the people participated in a session organized around stress-reduction, stress-mastery, and lifestyle management.  Following the formal program, a talking circle or a ceremony led by a community elder or a storytelling session was held.  Measurements were made of diabetes (glycohemoglobin), weight (Body Mass Index), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and overall Quality of Life (SF-36).  Comparisons were made for each participant from their historical data prior to the inception of the project.  Statistically significant improvements occurred in all these outcome measures when patients were used as their own historical controls.  While this is not a definitive, randomized controlled trial, it does suggest efficacy and points to the readiness of this concept to be subjected to an RCT.

 

Title of Course:  A Systems Dynamics Computer Simulation Model to Assess Cost of Care for Share Care Ventures.

Abstract:   Systems dynamics modeling is used to create an iterative model of differential equations to simulate the cost and benefits of a share care approach.  The model can be used to compare cost of care of conventional care in which mental health and physical health are managed separately versus shared care.  Using data obtained from Wes efforts in the United States to implement shared care for mental health and diabetes and for psychotic disorders, costs of care are calculated for the two options of care.  Canadian statistics are used to modify the model for the Canadian Health Care system.  Shared care demonstrates cost savings within the context studied.  Sensitivity analysis showed that the cost savings occurred when case managers had a dedicated afternoon in which they could bring psychotic patients and be sure that medical issues would receive attention.  Cost savings were generated by the absence of scheduling, since the clinic could expand and contract to accommodate whoever appeared and loss of income due to missed appointments in individual practitioners’ schedules was minimized.  The group format also provided cost savings over an individual visit format and was associated with greater satisfaction among users of care.  The model will be made available for others to test and use in their own context.

 

Title of Course:  How to Implement a Share Care Model for Psychotic Disorders

Abstract:   We will describe a new format that he implemented for the care of psychotic disorders in the United States – one which is in process of being implemented in Saskatoon, SK.  In the U.S., an afternoon clinic was organized for any individual and their families who suffered from a psychotic disorder.  The gathering began with a community meeting in which people discussed their challenges, life situations, needs, and resources.  This lasted usually one hour.  At the end of that hour, community health nurses and a family doctor took people for individual medical visits when that was needed.  The remainder of the people participated in a session organized around stress-reduction, stress-mastery, and lifestyle management.  A hearing voices group was included in that format.  Following the formal program, a talking circle or a ceremony led by a community elder or a storytelling session was held.  To assess the potential utility of this pilot project, measurements were made of psychotic symptoms (BPRS and PANAS), weight (Body Mass Index), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and overall Quality of Life (SF-36).  Comparisons were made for each participant from their historical data prior to the intervention of the project.  Statistically significant reductions occurred in all these outcome measures when patients were used as their own historical controls.  The purpose of the course is to explore with participants how to implement such a program in their own context and to brainstorm how to remove obstacles to success.

 

A culturally-sensitive prenatal intervention program for Native American women:

Reduction of substance use and increase of normal births.

 

Background:  Culturally sensitive intervention programs are needed to help Native American and Hispanic populations reduce alcohol, drug and tobacco use during pregnancy.  Reduction of the adverse impact of psychosocial stress, increase of social support, and adequate preparation for labor and birth is also desirable.

Methods:  Social marketing theory and public health strategies that included focus groups, in-depth interviews, and intercept interviews were used with Native American and Hispanic health educators and health care providers to develop a series of 7 group sessions.  Two pilot groups of 150 women were conducted.  Then a series of workshops were conducted for health educators with the aim of their importing the program to their home communities. A subgroup of these educators undertook further training and then collected data on the outcomes of 320 women who attended the intervention.  These outcomes are compared to a matched, comparison group.

Results:  The initial retention rate of women starting classes was 62%.  Active encouragement by health care practitioners increased retention to 94%.  Women in the Intervention group had significantly fewer Cesarean deliveries, oxytocin augmentations, and use of analgesia/anesthesia.  Apgar scores were better and the number of special care nursery admissions was lower.  The Intervention Group showed more drinking reduction among heavy drinkers.  More women quit smoking.  Being in the Intervention Group was associated with a greater likelihood of normal delivery (OR=4.40).  Membership in the Intervention Group protected against cesarean delivery  (OR=0.33).  Being in the Intervention Group (OR=0.22) decreased the risk for use of analgesia or anesthesia,  oxytocin use during labor (OR = 0.23), the infant's having a low Apgar at one minute (OR = 0.15) and at 5 minutes (OR = 0.18).

Conclusions:  A prenatal intervention program which includes endorsement and support of health care providers as well as intrapartum labor support can reduce the risks for cesarean birth and can improve infant outcome and incidence of normal delivery.  The means by which this is accomplished is hypothesized to relate to reduction of substance use during pregnant, to the avoidance of analgesia and anesthesia during labor, and to non-specific effects of women having a supportive, female companion during labor.  Health education programs to for pregnant women can be implemented in minority communities and can be made sufficiently attractive to women to foster attendance.  Costs are within the budgets of most Indian Health Service units and are more than offset by savings during the perinatal period.

 

Lecture: Gas Discharge Visualization Photography can distinguish types of water

Daniel Lewis II, Sabrina Lewis, Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Iris Bell, Gary Schwartz

Introduction:  As a prerequisite to studying the effects of substances, including homeopathic remedies, minerals, and crystals, on water using gas discharge visualization photography (GDV), we must establish that GDV can distinguish different types of water and that water performs in a stable manner from week to week.  Methods:  Three types of water – highly purified liquid chromatography water (HPLC), purified water (PW), and Tucson tap water (drawn from the ground) were used.  The initial water was placed in a 60 ml amber glass, wide-mouth bottle with a polyseal cap.  GDV photographs were taken every week for 15 weeks on the same water samples that were allowed to sit isolated in the laboratory.  Multiple bottles of the three types of waters were baselines.  Thirty photographs were taken at each weekly session of each condition, 10 per drop for three different drops.  The drops of water are suspended 1 mm above the camera lens by syringe.  Room temperature, time of day, and other ambient conditions remained constant for all experiments.  The lens was cleaned between each drop.  A different syringe was used for each condition on each week.  Results:  The values for tap water were significantly higher than HPLC and PW across all 18 parameters tested and on every week.  Form C spectrum area and color were statistically significantly different between HPLC and PW.  Two quartiles of density (representing the 50th quartile and the 75th quartile) were statistically significantly different between HPLC and PW. Conclusions:  Tap water is very different from either type of purified water.  It may have more energy than the purified waters – living, magnetic, and mineral.  The camera may be more capable of detecting that energy, which may be more available for alteration and linkage.  Further research will determine if tap water responds in a more robust manner to minerals, crystals than purified waters.

 

Lecture: Effect of intent on water

Daniel Lewis II, Sabrina Lewis, Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Iris Bell, Gary Schwartz

Introduction:  Based upon our data on types of water and GDV, we wondered if intention could be applied to water in a way that the GDV camera could capture.  We also tested the hypothesis that amber glass stops the transmission of energy.  Methods:  Three types of water – highly purified liquid chromatography water (HPLC), purified water (PW), and Tucson tap water were used.  Four experimental conditions were used: (1) a control condition of no intervention with the water and the syringe, (2) a mental condition of counting backwards by 3’s from 300 while holding the water bottle and syringe, (3) the sane individual concentrated on bringing earth energy up through his feet and into the bottle of water or the syringe held in his hand, and (4) that same individual concentrated on telling the water to emanate the best amethyst properties that it could, while holding the water or the syringe in his hand.  Contact was limited to a maximum of 2 minutes for each condition.  GDV photographs were taken immediately after the exposure.  Each sample was taken 3 drops, 10 pictures each.  The drops of water are suspended 1 mm above the camera lens by syringe.  Room temperature, time of day, and other ambient conditions remained constant for all experiments.  The lens was cleaned between each drop.  A different syringe was used for each condition on each week.  Results:  The GDV camera’s ability to differentiate types of water replicated across all previously reported parameters.  The differential between purified and HPLC also replicated.  Results for the amber bottle and the syringe were not statistically different for any condition.  Camera results for the mental condition and the earth energy condition were not statistically different from the control condition.  The amethyst condition was statistically significantly different from all other conditions on the previously reported parameters (Form C, spectrum, area, brightness).  Conclusions:  In at least one condition, mental intention appeared to be transmitted to water.

 

Lecture: Effect of crystals and stones upon water

Daniel Lewis II, Sabrina Lewis, Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Iris Bell, Gary Schwartz

Introduction:  We wondered if minerals and crystals impart energy to water that could be detected by the GDV camera.  Methods:  Three types of water – highly purified liquid chromatography water (HPLC), purified water (PW), and Tucson tap water were used.  All crystals and minerals were placed in their respective waters for eight weeks, after which the water continued to be photographed for an additional 7 weeks.  Substances used were lapis lazuli, rose quartz, carnelian, amethyst, and diamond.  GDV photographs were taken every week for 15 weeks on the same water samples that were allowed to sit isolated in the laboratory.  Multiple bottles of the three types of waters were baselines.  Thirty photographs were taken at each weekly session of each condition, 10 per drop for three different drops.  The drops of water are suspended 1 mm above the camera lens by syringe.  Room temperature, time of day, and other ambient conditions remained constant for all experiments.  The lens was cleaned between each drop.  A different syringe was used for each condition on each week.  Results:  Camera findings were statistically significantly different for all stones from each other.  Tap water consistently showed the highest readings on all parameters and had the greatest oscillations in behavior.  Once the stones were removed on week 8, all of the waters tended toward behaving like each other and oscillated and came to oscillate in the same pattern with a period of 2-3 weeks.  Energy was only just beginning to show evidence of decay in oscillatory period at the conclusion of the experiment.  Conclusions:  Stones and minerals impart energy patterns to water in which they sit.  These patterns persist after removal of the substances from the water.  Upon removal of the stone, the waters showed behavior that could indicate communication between waters.

 

 

Lecture:  Biophotonic measurements using the GDV to study the effect of crystals and stones upon water

Daniel A. Lewis II, B.S.1,2, Sabrina E. Lewis, B.A.1,2,3, Lewis Mehl-Madrona, MD, Ph.D.3,5, Iris R. Bell, MD, Ph.D.1,3,4,5,6,7, Gary E. Schwartz, Ph.D.1,4,5

Introduction:  We wondered if minerals and crystals impart energy to water that could be detected by the GDV camera. 

Methods:  Three types of water – highly purified liquid chromatography water (HPLC), purified water (PW), and Tucson tap water were used.  All crystals and minerals were placed in their respective waters for eight weeks, after which the water continued to be photographed for an additional 7 weeks.  Substances used were lapis lazuli, rose quartz, carnelian, amethyst, and diamond.  GDV photographs were taken every week for 15 weeks on the same water samples that were allowed to sit isolated in the laboratory.  Baseline data was obtained on multiple bottles of the three types of water.  Thirty photographs were taken at each weekly session of each condition, 10 per drop for three different drops.  The drops of water are suspended 1 mm above the camera lens by syringe.  Ambient conditions remained constant for all parts of the experiment.  The lens was cleaned between each drop.  A different syringe was used for each condition on each week. 

Results:  The GDV findings were statistically significant across all stones, in terms of discriminating one stone from another.  Tap water consistently showed the highest  readings on all parameters and had the greatest oscillation pattern.  Once the stones were removed on week 8, all of the waters tended toward oscillating like each other within 2-3 week period.  The biophotonic discharge was only just beginning to show evidence of decay in oscillatory period at the conclusion of the experiment. 

Conclusions:  Crystals and minerals impart a yet unknown energy pattern into water which can be captured using the GDV.  These patterns persist after removal of the crystals and minerals from the water.  Upon removal of the crystals, the waters show an oscillatory pattern that could indicate communication between waters.

This study was supported by NIH grants P20-AT000774-01S1 (DAL), P20 AT000774 (SEL, LM-M, IRB and GES), K24 AT00057 (IRB), P50 AT00008 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of NCCAM or NIH.

 

Lecture: Gas Discharge Visualization measurements of the effect of intent on water

Daniel A. Lewis II, B.S.1,2, Sabrina E. Lewis, B.A.1,2,3, Lewis Mehl-Madrona, MD, Ph.D.3,5, Iris R. Bell, MD, Ph.D.1,3,4,5,6,7, Gary E. Schwartz, Ph.D.1,4,5

Introduction:  Building upon our findings that the GDV was capable of discriminating various types of water in a stable manner, we undertook a study to see if intention and/or energy could be placed in water.

Methods:  Three types of water – highly purified liquid chromatography water (HPLC), purified water (PW), and Tucson tap water were used.  Three experimental conditions were used: (1) a control condition (no intervention), (2) an individual concentrated on bringing earth energy up through his feet into a bottle of water or syringe held in his hand, and (3) that same individual concentrated on telling the water to emanate the best amethyst properties that it could, while holding a bottle of water or syringe in his hand.  Contact with the samples was limited to 2 minutes for each condition.  GDV photographs were taken immediately after the exposure. 

Results:  The differential between purified and HPLC replicated Form Coefficient [F(1, 22)=5.2760, p=.03151], spectrum [F(1, 22)=10.835, p=.00333], and area [F(1,22)=10.835, p=.00333]. The results for the earth energy condition were not statistically different from the control condition, Form Coefficient [F(1, 12)=.03183, p=.86138], spectrum [F(1, 12)=2.6033, p=.13261] and area[F(1, 12)=.17897, p=.67974].  The amethyst intention condition was statistically different from the control condition, on spectrum [F(1, 12)=11.586, p=.00523] and area [F(1, 12)=9.9069, p=.00841], but not on Form Coefficient [F(1, 12)=2.3389, p=.15210].  In addition, across all reported parameters earth energy and the amethyst condition showed marginally significant differences between themselves.

Conclusions:  By using the GDV as a water testing tool, the measurement of intention and the imparting of energy into water can be studied.  The findings of this study indicate that the use of amber glass bottles does not stop the flow of energy or intention into water.  This is a methodological question that needs to be replicated and possibly controlled for in future studies.

This study was supported by NIH grants P20-AT000774-01S1 (DAL), P20 AT000774 (SEL, LM-M, IRB and GES), K24 AT00057 (IRB), P50 AT00008 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of NCCAM or NIH.

 

 

 

Potential psychophysiological biomarkers following a crystal prayer healing ceremony

Lewis II, D. A.1,2, Mehl-Madrona, L.3,5, Schwartz, G. E.1,4,5, Lewis, S.E.1,2,3,

Bell, I. R.1,3,4,5,6,7, & Scott, A.1,4

Objective: To determine the effects of exposure to amethyst crystal during a healing prayer ceremony on the physiological measure of electroencephalographic (EEG), electrocardiographic (EKG) and Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) and to establish whether the effects of synthetic crystals differ from natural crystals.

Methods: The design was a randomized; single blind (subject blinded), triple parallel group (age/sex matched) ceremony using real amethyst n=15, synthetic amethyst n=15 and a crystal diode n=15).  This study used both qualitative and quantitative measurements (EEG & GDV).  Methods were refined on 15 subjects.  Data from seven subjects were considered adequate for analysis following methodology stabilization.

Results:  Preliminary data showed pre/post differences in prefrontal low alpha (8-10 Hz) (F [1,3]=15040, p < .006) and temporal low alpha (F [1,3] = 2318127, p < .009) with trends towards significance in left temporal high alpha (10-12 Hz) (F [1,3] = 129.8, p < .064) and prefrontal high alpha (10-12 Hz) (F [1,3] = 149.81, p < .06).

Conclusion: Preliminary data thus far confirms a subject-crystal interaction in key brain areas related to prayer, hypnosis, and meditation.  Ongoing data collection and analysis will determine in a larger sample size if participation in ceremony (including prayer) enhances these effects of crystals.  We will also determine the role of intentionality of the healer in these interactions, as well as the facilitative and inhibitory traits, experiences, and characteristics that the patient brings to ceremonial healing.

This study was supported by NIH grants P20-AT000774-S1 (DAL), P20 AT000774 (SEL, LM-M, IRB and GES), K24 AT00057 (IRB), P50 AT00008 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of NCCAM or NIH.

 

 

Physiological change catalyzed by spiritual transformation.

 This paper develops a theoretical model for physiological change catalyzed by spiritual transformation based upon a study of 120 patients undergoing intensive, spiritually oriented psychotherapy.  While healers undergo spontaneous and/or intentional processes to achieve spiritual transformation, we wondered if the same process occurs for patients, especially those facing severe or life-threatening illnesses.  Can modern people, not raised in shamanic traditions, experience direct spirit communication leading to transformation?  In our model, only culturally derived beliefs and expectations prevent access to the “spirit world,” as is observed among indigenous cultures.  Stories were assessed using a combination of narrative analysis and modified grounded theory.  Descriptions included the patient's life story, their experience of the intensive psychotherapy process, and life afterwards.  The therapy process was preceded by hypnotic instructions to deconstruct modern beliefs prohibiting direct spirit communication.  Supernatural contacts, uniformly believed to be true encounters, occurred during ceremonies and guided imagery/hypnosis sessions, and included encounters with ancestors, deceased loved ones, animal helpers, angel-like entities, spirits of earthly features (e.g., mountains), spirits of celestial bodies, and Higher Powers.  The narrators attributed personal, spiritual transformation as resulting from these encounters.  Follow-up at 1 to 15 years afterwards revealed that 74 of the narrators reported profound and irreversible spiritual transformations, defined as a sudden and powerful improvement in the spiritual dimension of their lives. Spiritual transformation was associated with improvement in physical illness (72 persons) and psychological illnesses (32 persons).  The degree and intensity of spiritual transformation appeared related to the degree of physical and psychological change.

 

 

 

Explore (NY). 2009 Jan-Feb;5(1):20-9.

What traditional indigenous elders say about cross-cultural mental health training.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. mehlmadrona@gmail.com

Although a number of authors have commented on what mental health practitioners should be taught to be effective and appropriate with indigenous people, rarely have traditional healers been asked for their views. This paper explores what a diverse group of traditional healing elders believe are the important attributes for mental health providers to embrace and what principles they should adopt to guide their training. How indigenous people understand the meaning of mental health is also examined. The research presented was conducted in preparation for developing a cross-cultural training program for human service providers that would include traditional elders as community mentors and adjunct faculty on equal status with academically trained faculty. The goal is to identify and summarize the core values and principles needed to train mental health providers to work in harmony with traditional healers. The term indigenous used in this paper refers to people who have lived in a place long enough to develop local knowledge and practices about that place, even though they might not have been the original inhabitants. For example, the Dene in Arizona are indigenous even though they have only occupied that area from about 1100 ad. Last, the paper is presented in an indigenous way, first by situating the author, telling a story, explaining the methodology, describing the elders and what they said, and ending with a story to dramatize the conclusions as indigenous elders would do.

 

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I'll be putting up papers to read as I can get permission from the publishers to do so.